The basic types of satellite systems include geostationary (GEO), Low Earth Orbit (LEO), Medium Earth Orbit (MEO), And Highly Earth Orbit (HEO) satellites. There are also publilc and privet satellite systems such as Television Receive Only (TVRO), Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS), Global Positioning System (GPS), and multibeam satellite operations.
Geosynchronous satellite orbit the Earth on repeatedly regular point over time. Each GEO satellite is stationary over one spot above the equator therefore does not need any tracking from receiving and transmitting antennas on the Earth. GEO satellites enable the coverage of weather events. They are specially for monitoring severe local storms and tropical cyclones. They are best for television transmission and high speed data transmission.
Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite systems fly very closely to the surface of the Earth, up to 1,500 kilometers in altitude. They deliver more significant voice quality over GEOs and transmit signals with a small margin of delay. Some LEO systems are designed for satellite phones or global mobile personal communications systems. These can carry voice traffic among other data formats.
Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellites systems operate at about 10,000 kilometers above the Earth, making it lower than GEO orbits but higher than LEO orbits. They have a larger capacity than LEOs. This enable them more flexibility in satisfying shifting market demands for voice or data services.
Highly-elliptical orbit (HEO) satellite systems orbit the earth in an elliptical path unlike the LEO’s and GEO’s circular paths. Its elliptical orbit allows a wider view of the Earth and maximize the amount of time each satellite spends in viewing populated areas. It therefore requires fewer satellites than LEOs while providing an excellent line of sight.